Explicit Instruction

Explicit Instruction

Notes for this section are taken from Anita Archer and Charles Hughes - explicit instruction
Guilford Press, New York 2011

Figure 1.2 Six Teaching Functions


  • Review homework and relevant previous learning
  • Review prerequisite skills


  • State lesson goals
  • Present new material in small steps
  • Model procedures
  • Provide examples and non-examples
  • Use clear language
  • Avoid digressions

Guided Practice

  • Require high frequency of responses
  • Ensure high rates of success
  • Provide timely feedback, clues, and prompts
  • Have students continue to practice until they are fluent

Corrections and Feedback

  • Reteach when necessary

Independent Practice

  • Monitor initial practice attempts
  • Have students practice until skills are automatic

Weekly and Monthly Reviews

Explicit Instruction pg. 247 - Reproducible lesson A

Sixteen Elements of Explicit Instruction

  1. Focus instruction on critical content.
  2. Sequence skills logically.
  3. Breakdown complex skills and strategies into smaller instructional units.
  4. Design organised and focused lessons.
  5. Begin lesson with a clear statement of the lesson's goals and your expectations.
  6. Review prior skills and knowledge before beginning instruction.
  7. Provide step by step demonstrations.
  8. Use clear and concise language.
  9. Provide an adequate number of examples and non-examples.
  10. Provide guided and supported practice.
  11. Require frequent responses.
  12. Monitor student performance closely.
  13. Provide immediate affirmative and corrective feedback.
  14. Deliver the lesson at a brisk pace.
  15. Help students organise knowledge.
  16. Provide distributed and cumulative practice.

Principles of Effective Instruction

  1. Optimise time on task.
  2. Promote high levels of success.
  3. Increase content coverage.
  4. Have students spend more time in instructional groups.
  5. Scaffold instruction.
  6. Address different forms of knowledge.
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