Notes for this section are taken from Anita Archer and Charles Hughes - explicit instruction
Guilford Press, New York 2011
Figure 1.2 Six Teaching Functions
- Review homework and relevant previous learning
- Review prerequisite skills
- State lesson goals
- Present new material in small steps
- Model procedures
- Provide examples and non-examples
- Use clear language
- Avoid digressions
- Require high frequency of responses
- Ensure high rates of success
- Provide timely feedback, clues, and prompts
- Have students continue to practice until they are fluent
Corrections and Feedback
- Reteach when necessary
- Monitor initial practice attempts
- Have students practice until skills are automatic
Weekly and Monthly Reviews
Explicit Instruction pg. 247 - Reproducible lesson A
Sixteen Elements of Explicit Instruction
- Focus instruction on critical content.
- Sequence skills logically.
- Breakdown complex skills and strategies into smaller instructional units.
- Design organised and focused lessons.
- Begin lesson with a clear statement of the lesson's goals and your expectations.
- Review prior skills and knowledge before beginning instruction.
- Provide step by step demonstrations.
- Use clear and concise language.
- Provide an adequate number of examples and non-examples.
- Provide guided and supported practice.
- Require frequent responses.
- Monitor student performance closely.
- Provide immediate affirmative and corrective feedback.
- Deliver the lesson at a brisk pace.
- Help students organise knowledge.
- Provide distributed and cumulative practice.
Principles of Effective Instruction
- Optimise time on task.
- Promote high levels of success.
- Increase content coverage.
- Have students spend more time in instructional groups.
- Scaffold instruction.
- Address different forms of knowledge.